Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
This species does not currently occur in any protected areas. However, efforts are ongoing to increase protection and establish conservation measures in these islands, primarily due to the increase in tourism; the local government is aiming to declare the islands as a High Conservation Value area. In addition, the karst system on these islands is critical to the availability of freshwater to the human population, so protection of this habitat is also being addressed from a ecosystem services perspective.

Conservation Needed
Managing and decreasing the impact of human encroachment in the cave systems, as well as reducing the destruction of karst forests, is critical to the survival of this species and could be achieved through establishing formal protected areas. In addition, restoration of the natural forest habitat and management of invasive plant species would be beneficial.

Research Needed
Addition survey work is required to improve the understanding of the species population size, distribution and trends. There is a need for monitoring the population status of this species given the threats of mining and quarrying within its restricted range.

Location Information

In the 2004 assessment, the species was known only from Gigante Sur, in the central Philippines. Bucol et al. (2010) reported the species on Gigante Norte and surveys in 2014 recorded the species on Balubadiang and Cabugao Dako Gigante island group, however surveys on other islands in the Gigante island group did not record the species (Philippines Red List Assessment Workshop May 2017). Its elevational range is sea level to 600 m asl and its extent of occurrence (EOO) is 21 km2.

Geographic Range



Population Information

It is common on all four islands and abundant in appropriate atmospheric conditions (heavy rains). In fact, the 2014 surveys found the species to be more abundant than previously thought (Philippines Red List Assessment Workshop May 2017). However, due to ongoing decline in the extent and quality of habitat, the population is suspected to be decreasing, and the species was found to be relatively less abundant in area with disturbed habitat (i.e. with non-native vegetation). As 100% of the population is spread across four islands between which there is no dispersal, it is considered to be severely fragmented.


Major threats are shifting agriculture, human encroachment of the forest over the limestone karst and caves, guano mining, and the quarrying of limestone. The latter two threats are especially detrimental to the habitat of this species.


IUCN Red List Account Link

Please click here to see the species' IUCN Red List Account page.

Photo Credits

Norman Greenhawk