Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions Underway
The species has been recorded within Gunung Halimun National Park, Java (D. L. Yong in litt. 2013).

Conservation Actions Proposed
Urgently clarify its current distribution and population status, making the species a key target during surveys, and increasing the focus on hill forest and lower montane areas. As and when extant populations are found, research its range and ecological requirements. Lobby for effective management of existing protected areas and for the expansion of the protected area network, focusing particularly on eastern Javan sites (B. van Balen in litt. 2016).

Location Information

The species is endemic to Java, Indonesia, where apparently there are only a very limited number of confirmed records since the 1930s. These include two reports of individuals seen in Gunung Halimun National Park in June 2009 (Birdlife International 2001, B. Cox in litt. 2009), and further sightings within the same area in August 2014 (S. Cooleman in litt. 2014). There are also other potential records from from Kondang Merak, south Malang (H. Cahyono per B. van Balen in litt. 2016), and from Wonosalem, East Java, in July 1995 (B. van Balen in litt. 2016), but it was not seen during recent visits to the area (H. Cahyono per B. van Balen in litt. 2016). It may be under-recorded owing to its shy behaviour and often remote habitat (B. van Balen in litt. 2012).

Geographic Range



Population Information

Given the lack of recent records, any remaining population is precautionarily inferred to be extremely small, and a preliminary estimate places the population in the band 50-249 mature individuals.


The burgeoning human population on Java brings with it intense pressure on natural resources, one aspect of which has been a massive reduction in forest cover, particularly in the lowlands. This threat continues in the form of conversion to agriculture, development and uncontrolled fire, even within protected areas.


IUCN Red List Account Link

Please click here to see the species' IUCN Red List Account page.

Photo Credits

David Tan (category and featured image)