Conservation Actions

Orlitia boneensis is listed in CITES Appendix II. It is fully protected under Government Regulation of the Republic of Indonesia No. 7 in 1999. It is protected in Sarawak on the island of Borneo under the Fauna Conservation Ordinance of 1963, but is not protected in all Malaysian states. It occurs in protected areas. Further research into biology, ecology and population status are urgently needed.

Location Information

Records for Orlitia borneensis exist from western peninsula Malaysia, eastern Sumatra and western Kalimantan. New records exist in Waykambas and Berbak National Parks as well as from Langsa (Aceh), Mesangat (East Kalimantan) and Batu Kawa (Participants Singapore Red List Workshop 2018).

Geographic Range


Indonesia, Malaysia

Population Information

Orlitia borneensis is considered Endangered in Indonesia and reported mostly from national parks; it appears to be declining in abundance due to habitat loss and intensive illegal exploitation.

In 1999 O. borneensis was considered Vulnerable A2cd in Peninsular Malaysia, but in 2018 it was reported that the population in Peninsular Malaysia is considered rare and commercially extinct (B. Horne pers. comm. 2018). The species has been depleted across much of its range and all current information points to a population decline of at least 80% over the last three generations (90 years).

Orlitia borneensis was traded in East Asian food markets in huge numbers of animals of all sizes (B. Chan, R. Kan and M. Lau, pers. comm. 1999). In Kalimantan, hunting for local consumption has caused a declining population. Despite national protection under the Government Regulation of Indonesia No. 7 of 1999, illegal trade continues.  


Orlitia borneensis is traded in East Asian food markets in huge numbers of animals of all sizes despite legal status. Previously it was exported in large quantities from Indonesia despite official protection. Conversion of surrounding habitat into palm oil plantations poses an additional threat.


IUCN Red List Account Link

Please click here to see the species' IUCN Red List Account page.

Photo Credits

Yerian Ramadhan