Conservation Actions

There are no conservation measures in place for this species at present, but measures will be needed to protect this species and remnant habitat should development of Penang Hill continue (L. Grismer and E. Quah pers. comm. 2017).

Location Information

This species is only known from Penang Hill, Pulau Pinang (Grismer et al. 2011b). It is known from two specimens from the lower elevations of the hill, at 308 m asl. (Grismer et al. 2011b, L. Grismer and E. Quah pers. comm. 2017), and one closer to the peak (E. Quah pers. comm. 2017). It is likely more widely distributed in suitable habitats across the island of Penang (Grismer 2011a).

Geographic Range



Population Information

This species only known from three specimens (two of these being recent, unpublished records, the most recent taken in 2017 - E. Quah pers. comm. 2017), despite repeated surveys on Penang Hill over the last 8 years. As such the population size of this species is estimated to be very low, and may be below 1,000 mature individuals if the species is genuinely restricted to the hill (L. Grismer and E. Quah pers. comm. 2017).


This species is subject to an ongoing threat from continued hillside developments for housing and agriculture on the island, particularly at lower elevations of Penang Hill (L. Grismer and E. Quah pers. comm. 2017).

IUCN Red List Account Link

Please click here to see the species' IUCN Red List Account page.

Photo Credits

Evan S. H. Quah